Acknowledgements

I. Main Body

Chapter 1 Science and the Universe: A Brief Tour Section 1.4: Numbers in Astronomy

Chapter 1 Science and the Universe: Section 1.5: Consequences of Light Travel Time

Chapter 1 Section 1.6: A Tour of the Universe

Chapter 1 Section 1.7: The Universe on the Large Scale

Chapter 2 Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy Section 2.1: The Sky Above

Chapter 2 Section 2.2: Ancient Astronomy

Chapter 2 Section 2.3: Astrology and Astronomy

Chapter 2 Section 2.4: The Birth of Modern Astronomy

Chapter 3 Orbits and Gravity Section 3.1: The Laws of Planetary Motion

Chapter 3 Section 3.2: Newton's Great Synthesis

Chapter 3 Section 3.3: Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation

Chapter 4 Earth, Moon and Sky Section 4.2: The Seasons

Chapter 4 Section 4.5: Phases and Motions of the Moon

Chapter 4 Section 4.7: Eclipses of the Sun and Moon

Chapter 5 Radiation and Spectra Section 5.1: The Behavior of Light

Chapter 5 Section 5.2: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Chapter 5 Section 5.3: Spectroscopy in Astronomy

Chapter 5 Section 5.4: The Structure of the Atom

Chapter 5 Section 5.5: The Formation of Spectral Lines

Chapter 5 Section 5.6: The Doppler Effect

Chapter 6 Astronomical Instruments Section 6.1: Telescopes

Chapter 6 Section 6.2: Telescopes Today

Chapter 6 Section 6.3: Visible-Light Detectors and Instruments

Chapter 6 Section 6.4: Radio Telescopes

Chapter 6 Section 6.5: Observations outside Earth's Atmosphere

Chapter 6 Section 6.6: The Future of Large Telescopes

Chapter 7 The Other Worlds: An Introduction to the Solar System Section 7.1: Overview of Our Planetary System

Chapter 7 Section 7.2: Composition and Structure of Planets

Chapter 7 Section 7.3: Dating Planetary Surfaces

Chapter 7 Section 7.4: Origin of the Solar System

Chapter 17 Analyzing Starlight Section 17.1: The Brightness of Stars

Chapter 17 Section 17.2: Colors of Stars

Chapter 17 Section 17.3: The Spectra of Stars (and Brown Dwarfs)

Chapter 18 The Stars: A Celestial Census Section 18.1: A Stellar Census

Chapter 18 Section 18.2: Measuring Stellar Masses

Chapter 18 Section 18.3: Diameters of Stars

Chapter 18 Section 18.4: The H-R Diagram

Chapter 19 Celestial Distances Section 19.1: Fundamental Units of Distance

Chapter 19 Section 19.2: Surveying the Stars

Chapter 19 Section 19.3: Variable Stars: One Key to Cosmic Distances

Chapter 19 Section 19.4: The H-R Diagram and Cosmic Distances

Chapter 21 The Birth of Stars and the Discovery of Planets outside the Solar System Section 21.4: Planets Beyond the Solar System

Chapter 21 Section 21.5: Exoplanets Everywhere: What We Are Learning

Chapter 23 The Death of Stars Section 23.1: The Death of Low-Mass Stars

Chapter 23 Section 23.2: Evolution of Massive Stars: An Explosive Finish

Chapter 23 Section 23.3: Supernova Observations

Chapter 23 Section 23.4: Pulsars and the Discovery of Neutron Stars

Chapter 23 Section 23.5: The Evolution of Binary Star Systems

Chapter 23 Section 23.6: The Mystery of the Gamma-Ray Bursts

Chapter 24 Black Holes and Curved Spacetime Section 24.1: Introduction General Relativity

Chapter 24 Section 24.2: Spacetime and Gravity

Chapter 24 Section 24.3: Tests of General Relativity

Chapter 24 Section 24.4: Time in General Relativity

Chapter 24 Section 24.5: Black Holes

Chapter 24 Section 24.6: Evidence for Black Holes

Chapter 24 Section 24.7: Gravitational Wave Astronomy

Chapter 25 The Milky Way Galaxy Section 25.1: The Architecture of the Galaxy

Chapter 26 Galaxies Section 26.1: The Discovery of Galaxies

Chapter 26 Section 26.2: Types of Galaxies

Chapter 26 Section 26.3: Properties of Galaxies

Chapter 26 Section 26.4: The Extragalactic Distance Scale

Chapter 26 Section 26.5: The Expanding Universe

Chapter 29 The Big Bang Section 29.3: The Beginning of the Universe

Chapter 29 Section 29.4: The Cosmic Microwave Background

Chapter 30 Life in the Universe Section 30.1: The Cosmic Context for Life

Chapter 30 Section 30.2: Astrobiology

Chapter 30 Section 30.3: Searching for Life beyond Earth

Chapter 30 Section 30.4: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

Appendix

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Survey of Astronomy by Adapted by Jean Creighton is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.